Kuot language - Kuot language
|Native to||Papua New Guinea|
|Region||New Ireland (10 villages)|
The Kuot language, or Panaras, is a language isolate, the only non-Austronesian language spoken on the island of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. Lindström (2002: 30) estimates that there are 1,500 fluent speakers of Kuot. Perhaps due to the small speaker base, there are no significant dialects present within Kuot. It is spoken in 10 villages, including Panaras village ( ) of Sentral Niu Ailan Rural LLG in New Ireland Province.
Kuot is spoken in the following 10 villages. The first five villages are located eastern coast, and the last five on the western coast in New Ireland.:29 Geographical coordinates are also provided for each village.
- Kama ( )
- Bol (Nalik speakers) ) (mixed with
- Liedan ( )
- Kabi ( )
- Naiama ( )
- Panaras ( )
- Naliut ( )
- Nakalakalap ( )
- Patlangat ( )
- Bimun ( )
The Kuot variety described by Lindström (2002) is that of Bimun village.
The vowels /i/ and /u/ tend to become glide-vowels in occurrence with other vowels. The length of the vowels is not making differences for the meaning of words. The appearance of /i/ and /u/ with other vowels can not be seen as diphthong or a combination of vowel and glide-vowel. There are never more than three vowels per syllable. The combination of diphthong and vowel is also possible but they are pronounced in conditions of the syllable. Diphthongs are spoken like one sound.
't' to 'r' Alternation
The phoneme /t/ in certain possessive markers, such as "-tuaŋ", "-tuŋ" and "-tuo" becomes /r/ when it comes after a stem ending in a vowel. Compare:
- ira-ruaŋ – my father
- luguan-tuaŋ – my house
- i'rama-ruo – my eye
- nebam-tuaŋ – my feather
Where the third person singular masculine suffix "-oŋ" is used on a noun that ends with a vowel, this vowel is typically not pronounced. For instance, "amaŋa-oŋ" is pronounced [aˈmaŋɔŋ], not [aˈmaŋaɔŋ].
When vowel-initial suffixes are added to stems that end in voiceless consonants, those consonants become voiced. For example:
- /obareit-oŋ/ [obaˈreidoŋ] he splits it
- /taɸ-o/ [taˈβo] he drinks
- /marik-oŋ/ [maˈriɡoŋ] he prays
The phoneme /p/ becomes [β], not [b].
- /sip-oŋ/ [ˈsiβɔŋ] it comes out
- /irap-a/ [iˈraβa] her eyes
Kuot is the only Papuan language that has VSO word order, similar to Irish and Welsh.:920 The morphology of the language is primarily agglutinative. There are two grammatical genders, male and female, and distinction is made in the first person between singular, dual, and plural, as well as between exclusive and inclusive.
For instance, the sentence parak-oŋ ira-ruaŋ kamin literally means 'my father eats sweet potato'. Parak-oŋ is a continuous aspect of the verb meaning 'to eat', ira means 'father', -ruaŋ is a suffix used to indicate inalienable possession ('my father'), and kamin is a simple noun meaning 'sweet potato'.
Kuot nouns can be singular, dual, or plural. Below are some noun declension paradigms in Kuot (from Stebbins, et al. (2018), based on Lindström 2002: 147–146):
Class Noun root Gloss Singular Plural Dual 1 ‘plain’ road alaŋ alaŋip alaŋip-ien 2 ma eye irəma irəp irəp-ien 3 na base (e.g. of tree) muana muap muap-ien 4 bun hen puraibun purailəp purailəp-ien 5 bu breadfruit tree opəliobu opələp opələp-ien 6 uom banana pebuom pebup pebup-ien 7 bam rib binbam binbəp binbəp-ien 8 nəm village pianəm pialap pialap-ien 9 nim name bonim bop bop-ien 10 m nit dikkam dikkəp dikkəp-ien 11 n weed kaun kaulup kaulup-ien
The following basic vocabulary words are from the Trans-New Guinea database:
gloss Kuot head bukom hair kapuruma ear kikinəm eye irəma nose akabunima; ŋof tooth laukima tongue məlobiem louse ineima dog kapuna bird amani; kobeŋ egg dəkər; səgər blood oləbuan bone muanəm skin kumalip; neip; pəppək breast sisima man mikana; teima woman makabun sky panbinim moon uləŋ water burunəm; danuot fire kit stone adəs road, path alaŋ name bonim eat o; parak one namurit two narain
- Lindström, Eva. 2002. Topics in the Grammar of Kuot. Ph.D. dissertation, Stockholm University.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kuot". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Chung, Chul-Hwa & Chung, Kyung-Ja, Kuot Grammar Essentials, 1993:p1
- United Nations in Papua New Guinea (2018). "Papua New Guinea Village Coordinates Lookup". Humanitarian Data Exchange. 1.31.9.
- Ross, Malcolm. 1994. Areal phonological features in north central New Ireland. In: Dutton and Tryon (eds.) Language contact and change in the Austronesian world, 551–572. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
- Eva Lindström (November 12, 2002). "Kuot Language and Culture". Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University. Retrieved October 14, 2016. p. 102.
- Eva Lindström (November 12, 2002). "Kuot Language and Culture". Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
- Foley, William A. (2018). "The morphosyntactic typology of Papuan languages". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 895–938. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
- Stebbins, Tonya; Evans, Bethwyn; Terrill, Angela (2018). "The Papuan languages of Island Melanesia". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 775–894. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
- Greenhill, Simon (2016). "TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved 2020-11-05.